Since the beginning of time, man has wished to facilitate a better life for himself. His mind actively pursued the ease of doing things. For that, he built many tools and machines throughout his existence.
Now, times have changed. With science by his side, man has designed a machine that is almost as intelligent as him or can imitate his intelligence. It is what he calls Artificial Intelligence. However, since humans have developed artificial intelligence, there has been a lot of buzz over it. Not everyone likes it.
But AI is one of the most complex and creative developments of humankind, and not a single day goes by when it fails to amaze humanity. All those who say they have not used AI must know that they use artificial intelligence every day.
If you use Alexa or Siri, you are an ardent user of AI; if you have interacted with any chatbot, you are familiar with AI. Many of you must be wondering what the various types of AI are. Check out the article below for details.
AI is an ongoing discovery that is updated every day. So, to divide it into types and categories, we must follow the timeline of its development and updating. Overall, the scientists have divided AI into two categories:
- Functionality-based Artificial Intelligence
- Capability-based Artificial Intelligence
Let us first know what these categories are about.
Functionality-based Artificial Intelligence works on the learning capabilities of the machine, its ability to process data, and its response to external stimuli and environments.
Capability-based Artificial intelligence depends on how the machine learns and applies that knowledge.
Types of AI explained:
Functionality-based AI: These are of the following types listed below:
- Reactive Machines: These are the most basic types of AI. They are the fundamental category where the name itself is explanatory. These AI machines only react. They can only react to a stimulus generated by the user. However, if you think they can remember any response to a specific stimulus in the past, they can’t. These machines cannot remember their past. These AI machines are mere responders to requests and tasks assigned to them, but forget those responses once finished.
Let us understand this with the help of an example. Many of you watch Netflix these days. Do you notice how your television suggests you watch movies and series based on something you recently watched? You change your genre for a few days only to find all those suggestions disappear. It is a reaction to activities performed by you on your television.
This type was the most basic form of AI used in the past and needed improvement in memory management.
- Limited Memory AI: Since the reactive machines were failing the users in storage capacities, the scientists had to look into that area. After a sluggish 30-year trial and error, AI finally got its big boost when deep learning jumped into the picture. In 2012, the field of Artificial Intelligence gained popularity with Google and Image Net bringing in the storage option that had been missing all those years. It was still lagging behind what we have today, so it is called Limited Memory AI. It could build a limited knowledge pool that could be improved and updated with time.
An example of a self-driving car can make it easier to understand. The AI system in the car remembers the routes every day, driving one from one place to another with ease. Also, if you have used any chatbots, you may understand them clearly. If two people have a similar problem, the chatbot comes up with the same solution for both based on the intelligence it gained from the previous user. I hope this makes it easier for you to connect with such AI devices.
- Theory of Mind: The next big step in the AI world was to develop a touch of emotion, as machines can store knowledge and come up with solutions, but they cannot detect changes in tones or pick up emotional cues in our voices. Imagine Siri understanding and keeping you calm while crying by sensing your trembling voice. It does not do that as of now, but the concept of AI understanding the human mind is still on many brilliant minds. It is called the theory of mind. It is the psychological theory defining the human ability to read the emotions of its counterparts. However, the machine’s understanding of emotions matching a human level is still a little too far from reality.
To those who are scared of AI taking over the world and their jobs, this is the one you all need to worry about.
- Self-Aware AI: This is the stage of artificial intelligence developing self-awareness. It is an imaginative state, but scientists believe that if we reach this moment in the future, then the machines will be out of human control. It will be the AI point of singularity. The concept states that the machines, at this point, will not only be aware of our emotions but also develop an awareness of their emotions. That would lead them to make human-like decisions, which would make them beyond human control.
Do you remember Sophia, the robot? She was the best trial humanity had made in this type of AI.
AI-based on capability: This can be categorized as follows:
- Artificial Narrow Intelligence, or ANI, is also called weak AI or narrow AI in general terms. These AI machines only adhere to specific commands and cannot learn like the recent ones. These AI machines use machine learning along with neural network algorithms to complete the tasks given to them.
Let us understand this through an example. All of you using smartphones are familiar with voice-recognition or face-recognition applications. It records a limited number of options in its memory bank. Of those, if anyone attempts to open the phone, it does; otherwise, the application rejects every other face or voice command. Anything else is beyond the capacity of the machine.
- Artificial General Intelligence, or AGI, is a stronger version of AI that can learn and perform many actions for humans. The main reason to produce such AI machines is to create machines that perform multifunctional tasks for humankind.
- Artificial superintelligence: This is a myth as of now. You must have seen this type of intelligence in many Hollywood movies. The imagination of these AI machines comes from the theory that once the general intelligence level has been reached, all AI machines will begin to learn at a faster rate, and it would be impossible to beat them. They will ultimately become a threat to humanity. However, you can relax, as it is not your future.
In conclusion, the journey of artificial intelligence has been nothing short of remarkable. From the early days of reactive machines to the fascinating potential of self-aware AI, it’s clear that humanity has embarked on a path of innovation and discovery like never before. In this rapidly evolving landscape, staying informed about the different facets of AI is essential. As AI continues to evolve, so will our understanding of its capabilities and limitations.
So embrace the future of artificial intelligence with curiosity and optimism, for it holds the potential to enhance our lives in ways we can’t yet fully imagine.
Answer: The major types of artificial intelligence can be classified as reactive machines, limited memory, theory of mind, and self-aware AI.
Answer: Yes, artificial intelligence creates greater opportunities for automation, so it may be called the future of the world. It is one of the greatest innovations of mankind.
Answer: John McCarthy, an American computer scientist, is considered the father of Artificial Intelligence. He coined the term “ Artificial Intelligence”. Other notable names associated with McCarthy are Alan Turing, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell, and Herbert A.